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    CARBON FIBERS

    1. INTRODUCTION:

        Carbon fibers are a new breed of high-strength materials. Carbon fiber has been described as a fiber containing at least 90% carbon obtained by the controlled pyrolysis of appropriate fibers. The existence of carbon fiber came into being in 1879 when Edison took out a patent for the manufacture of carbon filaments suitable for use in electric lamps. However, it was in the early 1960s when successful commercial production was started, as the requirements of the aerospace industry - especially for military aircraft - for better and lightweight materials became of paramount importance. In recent decades, carbon fibers have found wide application in commercial and civilian aircraft, recreational, industrial, and transportation markets. Carbon fibers are used in composites with a lightweight matrix. Carbon fiber composites are ideally suited to applications where strength, stiffness, lower weight, and outstanding fatigue characteristics are critical requirements. They also can be used in the occasion where high temperature, chemical inertness and high damping are important.

    2. CLASSIFICATION AND TYPES:

    2.1 Based on precursor fiber materials, carbon fibers are classified into;
    • Pitch-based carbon fibers
    • PAN-based carbon fibers
    • Mesophase pitch-based carbon fibers
    • Isotropic pitch-based carbon fibers
    • Rayon-based carbon fibers
    • Gas-phase-grown carbon fibers
    2.2 Based on final heat treatment temperature, carbon fibers are classified into:
     
    • Type-I, high-heat-treatment carbon fibers (HTT), where final heat treatment temperature should be above 2000°C and can be associated with high-modulus type fiber. 
    • Type-II, intermediate-heat-treatment carbon fibers (IHT), where final heat treatment temperature should be around or above 1500°C and can be associated with high-strength type fiber. 
    • Type-III, low-heat-treatment carbon fibers, where final heat treatment temperatures not greater than 1000°C. These are low modulus and low strength materials. 

    3. MANUFACTURE:

       In Textile Terms and Definitions, carbon fiber has been described as a fiber containing at least 90% carbon obtained by the controlled pyrolysis of appropriate fibers. The term "graphite fiber" is used to describe fibers that have carbon in excess of 99%. Large varieties of fibers called precursors are used to produce carbon fibers of different morphologies and different specific characteristics. The most prevalent precursors are polyacrylonitrile (PAN), cellulosic fibers (viscose rayon, cotton), petroleum or coal tar pitch and certain phenolic fibers.

       Carbon fibers are manufactured by the controlled pyrolysis of organic precursors in fibrous form. It is a heat treatment of the precursor that removes the oxygen, nitrogen and hydrogen to form carbon fibers. It is well established in carbon fiber literature that the mechanical properties of the carbon fibers are improved by increasing the crystallinity and orientation, and by reducing defects in the fiber. The best way to achieve this is to start with a highly oriented precursor and then maintain the initial high orientation during the process of stabilization and carbonization through tension.

     

     

     

    Anshan Sinocarb Carbon Fibers Co., Ltd. ADD:NO.295 ANQIAN RD.ANSHAN,LIAONING,CHINA
    Zip code:114044Sale: 86-412-5211881 5211877 Service:86-412-5219983  
    TEL:86-412-5211889  FAX:86-412-5211100 E-mail:sinocarb@163.com
    Copyright 2008 All rights reserved
    Copyright© Anshan Sinocarb Carbon Fibers Co., Ltd.
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